Solar tracker case study. Energy Efficient Hybrid Dual Axis Solar Tracking System

Different types of renewable or green energy resources like hydropower, wind power, and biomass energy are currently being utilized for the supply of energy demand. The tracking mechanism is an electromechanical system that ensures solar radiation is always perpendicular to the surface of the photovoltaic cells solar cells which maximizes energy harnessing [ 7 ]. Replacement Solar Array tracking for retrofit Equipment: Khadidja, K. So for design and implementation process the whole mechanical system is mainly divided into three parts as follows: Figure 8:

Solar radiation — Solar array tilt geometry.

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This is a battery-backed real time clock RTCthat is, connected to microcontroller via I2C bus to keep track of time even if it is reprogrammed or if the power is lost. While the linear actuator lifts one end of panel carrier the other end needs to be fixed with a panel carrier rotator to get the perfect circular motion.

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This device is suitable for data logging, clock-building, time stamping, timers, alarms, and so forth. Comparison of Fix tilt and single axis tracker system of 1 MW size with respect to system life and annual gen- eration.

Again the rectangular aluminium frame has a rectangular mortise in its horizontal base. Introduction During the last few years the renewable energy sources like solar energy have gained much importance in all over the world. Single-axis Tracker PV Plant: Figure 4: A variable resistor is used here as position sensor.


A linear actuator converts circular motion to a linear vertical motion in contrast to the circular motion of a conventional electric motor. Before the introduction of solar tracking methods, static solar panels were positioned with a reasonable tilted angle based on the latitude of the location.

Figure 5: Sunlight is composed of photons or particles of solar energy. This method of sun tracking is reasonably accurate except on very cloudy days when it is hard for the sensors to determine the position of the sun in the sky [ 14 ]. Microcontroller is the main control unit of this whole system. Among the conventional renewable energy sources, solar energy is the most essential and prerequisite resource of sustainable energy [ 12 ].

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Case Study: In this tracking system linear unadvertised job cover letter sample consists of one stepper motor, screw thread, bolt, bearing, circular rod, and some pieces of wood. As a result it always consumes a certain amount of extra power compared to time-based tracking system.

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Figure 2: A bolt is attached in the middle of the wooden frame and this bolt is also tied with the screw thread. This proves the potential of solar energy which in turn points out the necessity of tracking mechanism in solar systems. In addition, this linear actuator has high weight lifting capability which is observed experimentally.

The energy produced by any solar conversion system depends mainly on efficient collection of solar radiation. So the maximum efficiency of the solar panel is not being used by single axis tracking system whereas double axis tracking would ensure a cosine effectiveness of one. Khadidja, K. There curriculum vitae de mannequin some bolts and these are tied with seven inch long circular rods of 2 mm diameter.

One screw thread, gear, and position sensors are used cover letter to dean of college this panel carrier rotator to give a circular movement to the panel carrier. The output from this circuit goes to controller and different voltages in the output of position sensor circuit represent different latitude angle solar tracker case study the sun for its annual motion.

Design and implementation of linear actuator: Control unit determines the direction of the movement of the motors both in the horizontal and vertical axes. Abstract This paper describes the design and implementation of an energy efficient solar tracking system from a normal mechanical single axis cover letter to dean of college a hybrid dual axis.

When linear actuator moves linearly then panel carrier rotator rotates a semicircular path which causes cv cover letter for promotion position sensor to change its voltage level.

India Email: So the combination of both of these tracking mechanisms made the designed tracker a hybrid one. Figure 1 shows the daily and annual motion of the sun.

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Experimental setup of the Hybrid dual axis solar tracker. Semiconductor materials within the PV cell absorb sunlight which knocks electrons from their atoms, allowing electrons to flow through the material to produce electricity [ 34 ]. The specifications of solar panel and gear and stepper motors are listed as follows. Ltd for giving [9] B.

This mechanism proved significant benefit of reducing energy consumption by hybrid tracker sacrificing a very little tracking loss.

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In addition, a sudden rainstorm on a hot sunny day can cause the outside temperature to drop rapidly. Table 1: Over the years, researchers have developed smart solar trackers for maximizing the amount of energy generation. The light sensors are placed at the two ends of solar panel. Therefore, to receive maximum solar insolation, one romeo and juliet friar lawrence fault essay to orient the PV panels normal to beam solar tracker case study.

Solar and Wind Technology, vol. Fix tilt Non-tracked PV Plant: B Electrical Circuit Design. This method of sun tracking is more energy efficient [ 17 ]. Vents rapidly and continuously equalise pressure differentials while effectively reducing condensation.

Figure 3: Financial analysis for a single-axis tracker solar PV plant of 1MW size. Sensor unit senses three different parameters light, time, and position and converts it to appropriate electrical signals. But this is no easy task, considering where solar power plants tend to be installed: This driver is an array of eight Darlington transistors.

Tracking systems The most effective solar photovoltaic systems turn and face the sun throughout the day using single- or dual-axis solar tracking systems.

Journal of Renewable Energy

These bearings are mortised into the roof and floor. Projected annual generation in kWh for a typi- cal solar PV power plant with single-axis tracker brown and fix tilt blue.

  • These controllers used were found to be not working, missing or having a corrupt program within them which affected to positioning of the array.
  • But this is no easy task, considering where solar power plants tend to be installed:
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To run the unipolar stepper motor in full drive or half drive mode ULN is used as motor driver IC. The results obtained Renewable Energy, vol. Figure 8 shows the basic RTC circuit. For instance, desiccants may be placed inside the housing, but while they will successfully bind the relative humidity within the enclosure, they do nothing to equalise the pressure differentials.

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One end of the horizontal base of the panel carrier is attached with the single rod hook of linear actuator and other with the panel carrier rotator. Energy Conversion, vol. Different researches estimate that covering 0. The output cover letter to dean of college the sensor unit comes to the input of the 7 a case study catalase activity answers which determines the direction of the movement of the motors both in the horizontal and vertical axes.

In this way, tracking is more reliable, and clients can expect to maximized yields from their harvest with this type of accuracy. is temporarily down for mainteinance

These light sensors also compare the darkness and cloudy and sunny conditions assisting daily tracking. Koussa, M.

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A stepper motor with a gear is placed on the body of the aluminium frame. Position sensor is placed in the panel carrier rotator.

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Naturally, the service life of these tracking systems needs to be as long — typically 20 to 25 years — as it is for the power systems they manoeuvre. Darlington pair is a single transistor with a high current gain. Solar Cube networked to COMPASS installed onto the array 8 digital inputs on Solar Cube - using existing positioning devices on the array for multi-axis direct-stop Relay outputs - wired into existing solar tracker case study new Jaguar AC drives for dual axis motion Analog input used for site with new or existing ultrasonic wind sensors.

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  • However, this method of sun tracking is not accurate [ 1516 ].
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Lee, H. Real time clock is a clock device that keeps track of the current time.