Literature review on gender bias. Literature Review: Gender Discrimination - Words | Bartleby

They have low status in the medical hierarchy of diagnoses [ 35 ], importance of teaching critical thinking skills women with those diagnoses are often questioned as patients [ 6983 ]. S26—S45, The first author conceptualized the theoretical and substantial categories and discussed them with the other authors until consensus had been reached. Cohen, and D. It expresses a dominance of men over women and over other men that do not live up to idealized norms like physical strength, technical competence, autonomy, and self-reliance [ 33 ]. Feeling mistrusted or psychologized by health-care professionals can lead to distress.

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These databases were chosen in order to capture a broad spectrum of research from the medical, behavioral, and social sciences. Inexplicable—Unfit There are conditions where pain seems to what is the thesis statement of the research report life on mars (1 point) the only reported, visible, or measurable symptom. Physical strength is idealized in hegemonic masculinity, in opposition to weakness [ 33 ].

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Further, men with chronic pain were perceived by others—both laypeople and nurses—as being less masculine and more feminine than the typical man [ 50 ]. Without sufficient consciousness about sex and gender-biased research, it has been common to neutralize both patients and professionals [ 31 ].

Breivik, B. Sex-related expectations about pain perception influence pain responses [ 7 ].

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Even men with chronic pain have to deal with hegemonic masculinity in health care. Different kinds of research design were represented, including quantitative and qualitative studies, reviews, and articles on theory development.

Literature Review: Gender Discrimination - Words | Bartleby

Album and Westin showed that women-dominated conditions like fibromyalgia and anxiety neurosis were rated as the least prestigious among 38 diseases [ 35 ]. This was a recurring theme when men described their experiences of living with pain [ 4346any thesis ideas545657596085 ]. Despite the large body of research on sex differences in pain, there is a lack of knowledge about the influence of gender in the patient-provider encounter.

Table 3: Chronic pain is common in all western societies [ 14 ], challenging both health care and working life.

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This was balanced by the coding in three distinct and clearly defined theoretical categories, which provided a tight framework for the selection of relevant material [ 3942 ].

The concept of andronormativity implies that men and masculinity dominate health care to such an extent that women and femininity become invisible. Pain, accompanied by distress, is typically attributed to psychological factors.

Sensitive Women—In Comparison Unlike the descriptions of men who were independent from women, the reviewed studies described women in comparison to men.

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Gender bias in pain treatment was identified, as part of the patient-provider encounter and the professional's treatment decisions. An overview of all categories and corresponding articles is presented in Table 2. Conclusions Gendered norms about men and women with pain, present in research from different scientific fiends, illustrate prevailing hegemonic masculinity and andronormativity in health care.

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There are convincing findings that biological differences contribute to the observed sex differences [ 237 ]. Tashani, G. It might be important to underline that these theoretical concepts were not chosen in advance but found applicable after the categorization and analysis of the reviewed studies.

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However, one study pointed out that the alteration of self-identity is common for both men and women with impairments [ 49 ]. Cohen, and D.