Case study in research design pdf. The case study approach | BMC Medical Research Methodology | Full Text

Even today case histories are one of the main methods of investigation in abnormal psychology and psychiatry. Data collection:

The researcher then writes up the information from both sources above as the case study, and interprets the information. Critical Instance — These studies are used to examine situations of unique interest or to challenge a universal or generalized belief.

The case study approach | BMC Medical Research Methodology | Full Text

In contrast, the other three examples see Tables 23 and 4 employed collective case study designs to study the introduction of workforce reconfiguration in primary care, the implementation of electronic health records into hospitals, and to understand the ways in which healthcare students learn about patient safety considerations[ 4 — 6 ].

They are an important way of illustrating theories and can help show how different aspects of a person's life are related to each other. In order to obtain a full and detailed picture of the participant or small group, the researcher can use a variety of approaches and methods to collect data. In-depth interviews were conducted with asthma researchers from the UK and US.

Phase 2a: These are however not necessarily mutually exclusive categories. A key rationale for PCO re-organisation in was to strengthen their commissioning function and those of clinicians through Practice-Based Commissioning. Case study research is not used to determine cause and effect, nor is it used to discover generalizable truths or make predictions.

Limitations of Case Studies

The case study method in social inquiry. There is an ethical issue of competence. Describe the benefits and limitations of using the case study method. Presenting detailed critiques, typically of one or more patients, aims to provide insights into aspects of the clinical case and, in doing so, illustrate broader lessons that may be learnt. Case studies emphasize in-depth content.

Five NHS acute hospital and mental health Trusts that have been the focus of early implementation efforts.

Sage publications. It has the advantage of saving time and money by not creating new and repetitive studies.

Reading, coding and comparison progressed iteratively. There are concerns about the reliability, validity and generalizability of the results. The method is therefore important for psychologists who adopt a holistic point of view i.

Quantitative studies commonly ask questions of who, what, where, how much and how many. They are commonly used to collect in-depth data in a natural setting where the researcher has little or no control over the events and there is a real life context.

Case Study Method

Handbook of research budgeting in business plan sample educational communications and technology, For students of these disciplines they can give a vivid insight into what those who suffer from mental illness often have to endure. The case study research method originated in clinical medicine the case history, i.

Case study researchers typically interpret their data either holistically or through coding procedures. Rosenthal, R.

Case Study Method in Psychology | Simply Psychology

Table 5 Definitions of a case study Author Stake[ 8 ] "A case study is both the process of learning about the case and the product of our learning" p. The interview is also an extremely effective procedure for obtaining information about an individual, and it may be used to collect comments from the person's friends, parents, employer, work mates and others who have a good knowledge of the person, as well as to obtain facts from the person him or herself.

This is case study in research design pdf appropriate approach when the question being studied is more general in nature and the data provides an overview. Doolin has, for example, noted that in the context of undertaking interpretative case studies, researchers can usefully draw on a critical, reflective perspective which seeks to take into account the wider social and political environment that has shaped the case[ 11 ].

Rather, several situations or events may be examined to raise questions or challenge previously held assertions. Most of this information is likely to be qualitative i.

This usually involves searching the data to identify and categorize specific actions or characteristics.

Long-term Review and Clinical Implications. How are case studies conducted?

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Whilst such a schema can be conceptually helpful, it may be appropriate to draw on more than one approach in any case study, particularly in the context of conducting health services research. We draw in particular on four of our own recently published examples of case studies see Tables 123 and 4 and those of others to illustrate our discussion[ 3 — 7 ].

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Centred on the issue of recruitment of South Asian people with asthma. The procedure used in a case study means that the researcher provides a description of the behavior.

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The main characteristics of case study research are that it is narrowly focused, provides a high level of detail, and is able to combine both objective and subjective data to achieve an in-depth understanding. Creswell, J. The illustrative 'grand round', 'case report' and 'case series' have a long tradition in clinical practice and research.

Patient safety materials were incorporated into both formal and informal curricula, albeit largely implicit case study in research design pdf than explicit. In psychology, case studies are often confined to the study of a particular individual.

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Case studies may be approached in different ways depending on the epistemological standpoint of the researcher, that is, whether they take a critical questioning one's own and others' assumptionsinterpretivist trying to understand individual and shared social meanings or positivist approach orientating towards the criteria of natural sciences, such as focusing on generalisability considerations Table 6.

Research has shown however that these minority ethnic populations are likely to be under-represented in research undertaken in the UK; there is comparatively less marginalisation in the Essay on helping poor countries. Often leads to the creation of new hypotheses that can be tested later. He has helpfully characterised three main types of case study: All the approaches mentioned here use preconceived categories in the analysis and they are ideographic in their approach, i.

To understand and compare the process of workforce change in respiratory services and the impact on patient experience specifically in relation to the role of general practitioners with special interests in a theoretically selected sample of Primary Care Organisations PCOsin order to derive models of good practice in planning and the implementation of a broad range of workforce issues.

The case study approach can offer additional insights into what gaps exist in its delivery or why one implementation strategy might be chosen over another.

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Saul McLeodupdated Case studies are in-depth investigations of a single person, group, event or community. Key issues, key texts. Knupfer, N. An intrinsic case study is typically undertaken to learn about a unique phenomenon. The following list discusses the potential benefits and limitations associated with using case study research methods: Often times, the goal of a case study is provide information that may research in the formation of a hypothesis for future research.

Case Study Method - Center for Innovation in Research and Teaching

Research design: A supplementary questionnaire was also provided to researchers. There are several types of case study methods. However, the turbulence, which surrounded reorganisation was found to have the opposite desired effect. Organisational context Policy and management views of patient safety and influences on patient safety education and practice.

Researchers' own subjective feeling may influence the case study researcher bias. Essay on helping poor countries Hans. Case studies often shed new light on an established theory that results in further exploration.

Researchers may choose to use one of these methods to collect data single method approach or they may use several methods multi-modal approach.

Strengths of Case Studies

These stereotypes case study in research design pdf on issues to do with, amongst others, language barriers and lack of altruism. Case studies are more flexible than many other types of research and allow the researcher to discover and explore as the research develops.

Social research methods: The attitudes of the researchers' towards inclusion: Case studies are commonly used in social science research and educational settings. Academic context Documentary evidence including undergraduate curricula, handbooks and module outlinescomplemented with a range of views from course leads, tutors and students and cover letter sheffield university in a range of academic settings.

Despite the intention to make the commissioning system more transparent, personal relationships based on common professional interests, past work history, friendships and collegiality, remained as key drivers for sustainable innovation in service development. Table 3 Example of a case study investigating the introduction of the electronic health records[ 5 ] Context: Even today case histories are one of the main methods of investigation in abnormal psychology and psychiatry.

Our aim in writing this piece is to provide insights into when to consider employing this approach and an overview of key methodological considerations in relation to the design, planning, analysis, interpretation and reporting of case studies. Phase 2b: A case study can be defined in a variety of ways Table 5the central tenet being the need to explore an event essay on helping poor countries phenomenon in depth and in its natural context.

Key findings: This comes from interviews and other sources, such as observation.

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In research, the conceptually-related case study approach can be used, for example, to describe in detail a patient's episode of care, explore professional attitudes to and experiences of a new policy initiative or service development or more generally to 'investigate contemporary phenomena within its real-life context'[ 1 ].

Framework approach. Case studies, on the other hand, are used to answer questions of how or why. Interpreting the information means the researcher decides what to include or leave out.

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In keeping with previously published work, we acknowledge the importance of theory to underpin the design, selection, conduct and interpretation of case studies[ 2 ]. Gomm, R. Retrieved from https: Stake, R.

1.3 Exploratory, Descriptive and Explanatory Nature Of Research

Table 2 Example of a case study investigating the process of planning and implementing a service in Primary Care Organisations[ 4 ] Context: Three Approaches to Descriptive Research. List reasons researchers use the case study method Explain the how data is recorded when using the case study method.

The results of the study are not generalizable because we can never case study in research design pdf whether the case we have investigated is representative of the wider body of "similar" instances Because they are based on the analysis of qualitative i. Semi-structured interviews, documentary data and field notes, observations and quantitative data.

Resource issues and peer pressure were found to influence safe practice. The uniqueness of the data usually means that it is not able to be replicated. The unrealistic, politically driven, timeline implementation thesis experts 10 years was found to be a major source of frustration for developers, implementers and healthcare managers and professionals alike.

Researchers suggested that the demographic profile of ethnic minorities, their political engagement and the different configuration of the health services in the UK and the US may have contributed to differential rates.