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The throne in Afghanistan remains with Ahmad Shah's tribe, though afghanistan history essay disputed between his descendants, until they are ousted from Kabul in The communist regime in Afghanistan collapsed in April It is bounded to the east and south by Pakistan including those areas of Kashmir administered by Pakistan but claimed by Indiato the west by Iranand to the north by the Central Asian states of TurkmenistanUzbekistanand Tajikistan. The United States committed to protecting the greater Persian Gulf region from outside intervention. The Afghan War quickly settled down into a stalemate, with more thanSoviet troops controlling the cities, larger towns, and major garrisons and the mujahideen moving with relative freedom throughout the countryside. Elections are held in and again in

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After Kandahar itself, Herat falls to Taliban militiamen in September - to be followed by Jalalabad at the other extreme of the country a year later. And once the USA begins supplying the guerrillas with Stinger anti-aircraft missiles, even Soviet air attacks become dangerous missions. Within two months of taking power he had reached an agreement reestablishing diplomatic and trade relations with Pakistan.

It barred the royal family—except the king—from politics, created a party-less system of elections, extended full citizenship to all residents of the country, including non-Pashtuns, and created a secular parliament and an independent judiciary.

  1. The last Soviet troops left in February
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The last battalion crosses the Friendship Bridge over the Amu Darya river in February - leaving President Najibullah to try and run a communist Afghan state on his own. He is accepted in this role by foreigners as well as by the Afghan tribes. He takes the title Durr-i-Durran 'pearl among pearls' and changes the name of his tribe to the Durrani.

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Essay story about fisherman example Afghanistan Essay is published for educational and informational purposes only. The most striking Soviet achievement is inadvertently persuading seven Afghan guerrilla groups to come together in a common cause. Now, with the enemy terminally weakened by the US bombs, the Northern Alliance at last begin to make sudden gains.

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Interested in spreading and consolidating power along its border regions, the Soviet Union was eager to assist. In the violence and chaos of Afghanistan, the Taliban inevitably become a guerrilla group; and, compared to the blatant self-interest of certain other mujaheddin, the Taliban's simple message of Muslim fundamentalism proves immensely attractive.

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This act of violence brings to the throne Nadir's only surviving son, as the year-old Zahir Shah. It also depopulates it. But ruling Afghanistan in these circumstances proves impossible.

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But events soon prove that such a privilege can be dangerous in Afghanistan. Department of Defense The mujahideen were fragmented politically into a handful of independent groups, and their military efforts remained uncoordinated throughout the war.

The war in Afghanistan became a quagmire for what by the late s was a disintegrating Soviet Union.

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Zahir Shah goes into exile in Europe. His vigorous pursuit of Pashtun unification created more tensions with Pakistan and pushed Afghanistan further toward the Soviets.

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Ahmad Shah Durrani, as he is now called, has learnt from Nadir Shah the profession of conquest. The city finally falls on December 7 but the Taliban leader, Mullah Omar, escapes the net.

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With this much achieved, Amanullah accelerates a programme of reform on Research paper on reggae music lines. President Bush, who has described the American campaign as a 'war on terrorism', declares that any who do not cooperate in this war are themselves equivalent to terrorists.


In Britain accepts Abdurrahman as amir of Kabul, agreeing at the same time not to demand residence for a British envoy anywhere in Afghanistan. When the Taliban briefly capture Mazar-e-Sharif inthey similarly masssacre thousands of Shia Muslims in the city.

The United States committed to protecting the greater Persian Gulf region from outside intervention.